Defined Terms

Bagcraft Glossary

2, 3, 4 or 5 in ONE Wrap
Innovative print design allows identification of multiple products with one wrap reducing inventory and packaging costs.

Absolute Humidity
The actual amount of water vapor present in air, usually expressed in grains per cubic foot of volume. (see also humidity, relative humidity.)

Aniline Dyes
Coal-tar derivatives classified according to the degree of fastness to light or brightness. Basic dyes have extreme brightness, but are not fast to light. Acid dyes are less brilliant, but are faster. Direct dyes are much faster than basics and, in some cases, than acids.

Apparent Density
The weight per unit volume of the sheet, calculated by dividing the basis weight(500 sheets 24″ x 36″) by the caliper (in mils) and multiplying that figure by the factor .0000643.

Apparent Specific Gravity
The ratio of the weight of the paper to that of an equal volume of water. Because the specific gravity of paper cannot be measured by dipping it into water to obtain its volume by displacement, it is better to speak of the apparent density, or density, of paper.

The inorganic residue after burning a piece of paper to determine the percentage of mineral content and loading material such as filler.

Asphalting Paper
Kraft paper used as a base in the manufacture of asphalt papers. The end product is usually used as a waterproof barrier.

The removal of bark from pulpwood prior to further processing. Usually accomplished by feeding the logs into large steel drums. The walls of these drums are constructed of mshaped bars. When the drums are rotated (about 6 rpm) the bark is removed by the logs rubbing against one another and against the bars. The removed bark falls through the spaces between the bars onto a conveyor which takes it to where it is burned to produce steam.

Barrier Wax Paper
This paper is coated on one side with a barrier wax blend. The material resists moisture and grease and extends holding times making it a favorite wrap among national quick service restaurant chain.

Basis Weight
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of industrial paper cut to 24″ x 36″.

A machine consisting of a tank or tub with a partition containing a heavy roll revolving against a bedplate. Both roll and bedplate have horizontal metal bars set on edge. Pulp is fed into the beater, and water is added so that the mass circulates and passes between the rolls and the bedplate. This action frays the fibers, thereby increasing their ability to absorb water and developing their bonding characteristics. The beater is also the point at which other materials may be added to the pulp, (e. G. Size, dyes, bleach, etc.) in order to give the finished paper certain characteristics.

Beater Sized
Paper for which the pulp has been sized in the beater previous to fabrication into paper.

The process of chemically treating pulp in order to give it a lighter color or higher brightness.

Bonding Strength
The resistance of coated or uncoated paper to picking or lifting of its surface fibers.

Denotes a tear all the way across the sheet which occurs while the paper machine is running. The repair of a break is called a splice.

Not a colorimetric quantity, but the instrument-measured reflectivity of a sheet of paper for blue light.

Paper that has been discarded anywhere in the’ process of manufacture. It usually is reprocessed.

The compactness of a sheet in relation to its weight. A bulky sheet lacks compactness, resulting in a lighter weight for a given thickness.

Bursting Strength
The resistance of paper to rupture under pressure. Usually determined on a mullen tester and expressed in pounds per square inch. Also referred to as mullen, mullen strength and pop test.

A set or “stack” of horizontal steel rolls at the dry end of the paper machine through which the paper may pass to increase its smoothness, gloss and apparent density.

Calender Cuts
Defects caused by creasing or cutting of the web of paper during calendering due to improper tension of the web.

Calender Marks
Indentations sometimes called “hobos” caused by foreign particles adhering to one or more calender rolls, which mark the paper.

The thickness of a sheet of paper, usually expressed in thousandths of an inch, or mils, or points. .001 is equal to a mil or point.

In general, 70,000 pounds of paper constitute a carload. To a few shipping points, 50,000 pounds are considered a carload. Piggyback containers, in most cases, will hold 42,000 pounds. (see LCL, truckload.)

See wood cellulose.

Chemical Wood Pulp
A general term applied to pulp fibers which have been isolated from wood chips by chemical digestion.

A large rotating disc on which are mounted large knives. The pulpwood logs are fed into the chipper which reduces the logs into chips about 1/8 inch thick and 3/4 inch square.

Clear Polypropylene
A clear plastic sheet with superior barrier properties for displaying cold sandwiches and other chilled foods in the deli merchandising case. The material extends the shelf life of displayed food with an oxygen and moisture barrier.

Close formation
The distribution of the fibers within a sheet resulting in one of uniform density and appearance when viewed by transmitted light. The opposite of uneven or wild formation. (see also formation.)

Coarse Papers
A term used to distinguish industrial grades of paper from fine papers such as writing, bond, ledger, book. Etc.

Coated One Side
Sandwich wraps and basket liners coated on one side with a polyethylene and wax blend for
improved heat retention and moisture resistance.

A warped or bulged spot in the sheet. Caused by excessive shrinkage during drying.

That property of a substance which determines the non-geometrical part of the visual sensation experienced by an observer. (see also aniline dyes.)

Color Fastness
The property of a colored paper to retain its color in normal storage or to resist changes in color when exposed to light, heat or other deleterious influences.

The exposure of paper to accurately controlled and specified atmospheric conditions, so that its moisture content reaches equilibrium with the given atmospheric condition.

A tree like the spruce which is cone bearing, used in making sulphate and sulphite pulp.

One which converts paper into finished products. BagcraftPapercon is a paper converter.

A tube of fiber, wood, metal or other material on which rolls of paper are wound.

Core Plugs
Metal, wood or compressed paper plugs which are driven into the paper core of the finished roll to prevent crushing or other damage to the core.

The number of sheets which make up a ream of a particular kind of paper. Some grades are 500 count; others are 480. Mosinee prefers 500 count.

Crepe Paper
A sheet that has been crowded on a roll by means of a doctor blade in contact with the roll’s surface. When this is done on the paper machine, it is known as machine-creped paper. Creping increases the stretch, flexibility and softness of a sheet. The amount of stretch in a sheet can range from 3% to 30%. (see also water creping.)

Cross Direction
The direction of the paper at right angles to the machine direction. Also expressed as “across the machine” and “across the grain.”

Dead Fold
Common characteristic of foil wraps and bags; once wrapped or closed, the fold does not come undone.

Weight per unit volume. (see also apparent density.)

A vessel in which wood chips and chemicals are cooked under pressure for the removal of noncellulosic materials in the wood, thereby making pulp. A cook takes from five to six hours.

A thin metal plate or scraper in contact with a roll along its entire length to keep it free from paper, pulp, size, etc. Also used in performing creping. (see also crepe paper, water creping.)

Dry End
That section of the paper machine consisting of the dryers, calenders, reel, etc.

A series of steam-heated, rotating metal drums on the paper machine against which the wet paper is held by endless felts for the purpose of drying the paper. The temperature is controlled to suit the requirements of the sheet being made.

Dry Wax
A process where wax is applied to the sheet in such a way that the majority of the wax is driven into the paper with little or no wax left on the surface.

Dubl-Panel® Bags
Full-length window with paper panels on each side; common bag design for bread and sandwich packaging.

Dubl Shield®
Our innovative insulated Dubl-Shield® wrap has a highly functional grease and moisture barrier, but will allow moisture to escape, which keeps your bread or bun from getting soggy and loosing freshness. The wrap has superior graphic printability on the flat grease resistant outer layer. Improved sustainable design offers an alternative to foil and poly insulated wraps and it’s certified compostable by Cedar Grove, which gives it a clear end of life advantage. Dubl-Shield® can be printed on the grease resistant layer with one to four colors and can be produced with tinted adhesive to showcase a message or graphics on the inside of the wrap. Our proprietary triangle design air pockets help keep food hot during the average 7 minute holding time before consumption.

Special process places heavy, glossy wet wax on one side and a lighter, dry wax coating on the other side; provides improved moisture, grease and oxygen barrier to keep foods fresh longer. Our Dubl Wax® deli papers are aggressively infused with wax to provide a smooth uniform high-performance moisture barrier.

Electric Insulating Paper
See cable paper, dielectric paper.

That property of a paper or dyestuff which renders it resistant to change in color. (see also color, color fastness.)

Fiber Analysis
A microscopic method used to determine the fiber makeup in a sheet.

The condition of the surface of a sheet. High finish means smooth, glossy, hard surface. Low finish means the absence of a high-gloss surface. Measured by reflected light.

The various operations in the processing of paper, being performed after it leaves the paper machine. Includes slitting, rewinding, sheeting, trimming, counting, packaging, etc. (see also finish.)

A protruding strip of paper or cardboard inserted in rolls of paper to indicate where breaks have occurred and been spliced.

Flame-Resistant Paper
A paper which has been treated with chemicals which enable it to resist flame. While not actually fireproof (q. V.), It will not support combustion, will char but not carry a flame.

Flat Paper
Paper which is relatively smooth, as opposed to a sheet which has been creped. (see also crepe paper.)

Foil Insulated Paper
Made of foil and paper laminated together to form a multi-functional material for a wide variety of foodservice applications. We laminate the two layers together with a honeycomb-shaped adhesive design. This design creates insulating air pockets between the layers, which improve heat retention and increase holding times. Honeycomb foil insulated wraps and bags provide the best overall heat retention, moisture/grease resistance, holding times, dead-fold and product appearance.

Folding Endurance Test
The number of double folds a paper strip will withstand before breaking on any standard fold tester and under specified atmospheric conditions.

The distribution or arrangement of fibers in a sheet of paper. Usually judged by visual appearance via transmitted light. A closed formation is one which is uniform. An irregular arrangement is a wild formation.

The pulp and chemical composition of the stock from which the paper is made.

A term applied to a paper which is ranked on the basis of its use, appearance, quality, manufacturing history, raw materials, performance or a combination of these factors.

The machine direction of paper, as opposed to the cross direction.

Grease Proof
Paper that offers superior resistance to the penetration of grease and does not stain.

Grease Resistant
Paper that has good to excellent resistance to grease penetration.

Grease-Resistant Paper
Paper manufactured and treated in such a way to prevent the absorption spread and passage of grease and oil through the paper.

The side panel of a bag; second measurement taken when sizing a bag

Paper made on a small stationary mold (as distinguished from that made on the moving wire of a large paper machine) for the purpose of testing and examining the properties of the pulp and paper.

High Density Polyethylene; stiffer and stronger than Low Density Polyethylene

A variety of a specified color. That attribute of colors which permits them to be classed as reddish, bluish, greenish, etc. (see also color.)

The water vapor present in the atmosphere. (see also absolute humidity. Relative humidity.)

The chemical and/or mechanical treatment of fibers (other than cooking and bleaching) prior to sheet formation. Such treatment increases the ability of the fibers to absorb water and develops the bonding characteristics.

That property of a material which causes it to expand or contract when its moisture content is changed (as when the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere is changed). This property is of great importance where the dimensions of paper sheets and cards must remain constant.

That property of a substance which causes it to absorb water vapor from a surrounding atmosphere. Relative to most materials, paper is hygroscopic.

Two-ply grease resistant paper lamination with a large honeycomb adhesive pattern that creates insulating air pockets for improved heat retention.

Impregnating Papers
Soft, porous papers which are to be saturated or impregnated with solutions or compounds of various types. Wet tensile strength and degree or rate of penetration are important qualities.

Industrial Papers
Papers which are manufactured for industrial uses such as impregnating, insulating, packaging, et al, as opposed to cultural papers used for writing and printing.

Insulated Paper
A three-ply material, consisting of a very thin layer of poly sandwiched between two layers of paper, with excellent heat retention, grease resistance and moisture-absorption properties. It offers a superb alternative to paperboard clamshells in heat retention for holding times and in solid waste reduction. The material is safe for the microwave providing a practical, re-heatable substitute for foil insulated wraps.

Sheets folded into each other that can be pulled one at a time from a carton dispenser.

A machine consisting of a cone-shaped shell into which fits a cone-shaped plug, both of which have steel bars imbedded lengthwise in their wood surfaces. The plug is rotated inside the shell at high speed by an electric motor. As the plug rotates,_ the pulp passes between the bars. The space between the bars of the shell and the bars of the plug can be varied by moving the plug inward or outward. Used to further refine the pulp after it has left the beaters and to regulate the amount of water the fibers will hold.

Jumbo Roll
Roll of paper whose diameter is greater than 24 inches, and over 12 inches wide.

A German word denoting strength. Used as the generic name for paper of high strength made from sulphate pulp.

An identification placed on a package, carton, bundle, skid roll or case indicating contents.

Paper, Foil or Film materials are bonded together to form a stronger material with improved barrier characteristics.

The operation of combining two or more sheets of paper with an adhesive or other substance for the purpose of increasing strength, rigidity, thickness, moisture-or grease resistance or other qualities.

Abbreviation for less-than-carload quantity of paper. (see also carload, truckload.)

The cut-out portion at the front of the top opening of a bag; when measuring a bag with a lip, always measure the height from the bottom of the bag to the lip.

Abbreviation for less-than-truckload quantity of paper. (see also carload, truckload.)

Fibers or other materials which produce spots in a sheet that are thicker than the surrounding paper.

Machine Coated
Paper which receives its coating from apparatus incorporated with the paper machine.

Machine Direction
The direction of paper parallel to its forward movement on the paper machine. Also called “with the grain.” the direction at right angles to this is called the cross direction.

Machine Finish
The finish obtainable on a particular paper machine without the aid of added equipment, such as water boxes and supercalenders.

Machine Glazed
A high finish given to one side only by drying the web in continuous contact with a highly polished heated cylinder.

Machine Wire
See Fourdrinier.

A marker is placed between every 100, 500 or 1000 sheets, however ordered. Usually expressed as ream-mark, 100-sheet mark or 1000- sheet mark.

Instruments or calipers for measuring the thickness of paper in thousandths of an inch .

Moisture Content
The percentage of water (by weight) in a pulp or paper, determined by weighing the sample, completely drying it at 100- 105 degrees c (212 – 221 degrees f), and then weighing the dried sample. The result (the difference between the dry weight and the original weight) is expressed as a percentage of the original weight.

Moisture Resistance
That property of a sheet which resists uptake or passage of moisture. Usually achieved by adding sizing.

See Bursting Strength.

A measurement of a material’s resistance to water vapor penetration.

Natural Colored
Applies to papers whose colors result from the nature of the stock used when no bleach or coloring has been added. In the case of kraft, its natural color is a tan or light brown.

Neutral Papers
Those papers with a ph of 6.5 – 7.5 which in9icates freedom from acid and alkali. Such papers are chemically inert and will not cause corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals. (see also acid-free paper, pH value.)

In calendering paper the web passes between two or more rolls, the points of contact being called the “nips.”

Noncorrosive, Greaseproof Wrap
A barrier material which is grease-resistant, acid-free and noncorrosive. Often a laminated material.

Oil Penetration Test
The measurement of the time required for oil to completely penetrate a sheet of paper.

The degree of nontransparency or the relative opaqueness of a given paper.

Open Sesame® Bags
Open top and side sandwich bags for easier eating on-the-go.

Paper is packed in cartons, cases, bundles, rolls, on skids or pallets.

A portable platform device onto which paper can be loaded for storage and/or transporting. It is supported by parallel lengthwise runners attached at each of two edges, plus a third runner attached in the center, which are of a height to permit lifting and/or movement with a fork-lift or pallet truck. Because of the third supporting member, a pallet cannot be lifted and/or moved with a platform truck. Some pallets are double-deck (a platform top and bottom), making them suitable for stacking loads. (see also skid.)

A mat of cellulose fibers which have been formed by suspension in water on a wire screen, and which subsequently have had the water removed by means of vacuum and heat drying.

Paper Machine
The machine on which the cellulose fibers are formed, pressed, dried, calendered, wound, slit, etc.

Paper Towels
Towels made from a creped, absorbent, sulphate paper. They possess exceptional dry and wet strength and absorbent properties.

pH Value
The degree of acidity or alkalinity on a scale ranging from 0 to 14. Neutral point is 7.0, with 0 to 7.0 being acid and 7.0to 14 being alkaline. A commercially neutral paper has a ph range of from 6.5 to 7.5. (See also acid-free paper, neutral papers.)

Pinch Bottom Bags
Any bag with an “edge” bottom that is heat sealed or glued.

Minute holes in a sheet of paper which may be caused either by spaces between the fibers or by foreign particles, or both.

Pop Test
Slang term for Mullen or bursting strength.

That property of a sheet which allows the passage of air through the sheet. Measured by the time required for a given amount of air to flow through the sheet.

Power Factor
A measure of the heat generated within a dielectric material, such as paper, when the latter is subjected to an alternating electric field of a given strength and frequency. A measure of dielectric loss. Especially important in condenser and cable papers. The power factor is expressed either as a decimal or as a percentage of true power to apparent power. Power factor=true power/apparent power.

Press Rolls
The pairs of rolls used for pressing water out of the paper web on the paper machine.

Price is expressed as so much per hundredweight (cwt); in some grades it is expressed as so much per given area.

Process Printing
Printing process that utilizes four basic colors (cyan, yellow, magenta, black) and halftones.

The fiber which results from the cooking of the wood chips in the digester.

A term used to denote 500 sheets of industrial paper. (see also basis weight.)

Ream Weight
The weight of one ream of paper. (see also basis weight.)

A term applied to the untrimmed roll of paper of full machine width wound ‘on a large shaft at the dry end of the paper machine. Also used to designate the shaft on which the paper is first wound when it leaves the dryers, or as a term for the operation of winding paper into a reel.

Relative Humidity
The amount of moisture in the air at a given temperature. Usually expressed as a percentage of the total amount of moisture the air could hold at that temperature.

The characteristic of how a food product adheres to the material used.

The operation of winding the paper from the reel onto a core to produce rolls of the desired width, diameter and tension.

Rosin Size
A sizing material made from pine resin which is frequently added or applied to paper to render it moisture-resistant. (see also sizing.)

Saturating Papers
See impregnating papers.

A piece of equipment used for recovering fibers and other papermaking materials from water. Thereby saving them from loss.

Scale Paper
A sheet of material that is placed on a scale to prevent the food from touching.

Prior to cooking. The wood chips are fed onto a vibrating screen which retains those which are too large for the cooking process. After cooking. The pulp is passed over a screen to remove coarse fibers. Slivers. Knots and other undesirable objects. Both operations are termed screening.

Any material used in sizing.

Size Press
That point on the paper machine between the first and second dryer sections consisting of a tank and a pair of press rolls. The sizing material is applied to the paper as it passes between the rolls. The pressure between the rolls determines the amount of material applied to the sheet.

Materials which are added to papers to render them resistant to moisture. May be added at the size press or in the beater.

A portable platform onto which paper can be loaded for storage and/ or transporting. It is supported by parallel lengthwise runners attached at each end of two edges. Or by legs attached at each corner. Which are of a height to permit lifting and/or movement with a fork-lift or platform truck. In contrast to a double-deck pallet, a skid is not generally considered to be suitable for stacking loads. (see also pallet.)

Smoothness Test
The relative smoothness of a sheet determined by a precision instrument which measures the length of time for a specified volume of air to pass the surfaces of the samples being tested. Result is expressed in seconds and tractions thereof.

Self-opening style bag can be held with one hand and opened to fill.

A written description of the specific; physical properties of a particular sheet of paper.

Specific Gravity
The ratio of the weight of a specimen to the weight of an equal volume of water. An impractical measurement of paper. (see also apparent density. Density.)

Specific Volume
The volume per unit mass of paper when measured under standard conditions. It is usually expressed in cubic centimeters per gram – i.e., the reciprocal of density.

The joining together of two lengths of paper by their ends. Used to repair a break or to attain greater continuous length. Splices are made using either glues or adhesive tapes.

One of the materials frequently used as sizing for paper. Also used when a higher degree of rigidity is desired in a sheet. Or to cause the fibers to lie flat, thereby improving finish.

Steam Finish
A finish obtained by means of a steam spray striking the sheet before it enters the machine calenders. The effect is to increase the density, smoothness and gloss of the sheet. (see also water finish.)

Information printed on the shipping containers with a stencil indicating customer order number and other identifying marks.

The elongation of a strip of paper undergoing test for tensile strength.

TAC-Label™ Seal
Peal-off label style bag sealing device used as an alternative to Tin Ties.

See paper towels.

The widest sheet of finished paper that can be made on a given machine.

A term applied to paper that is cut or trimmed on two or more sides to insure exact angle.

Tropical Testing Chamber
A chamber fully insulated against changes in preselected temperatures and relative humidity, permitting the’ duplication of tropical climatic conditions.

In general, 42,000 pounds of paper constitute a truckload. In most cases, 24,000 pounds are considered a minimum truckload. (see carload, LTL.)

A term applied to sheets of paper dissimilar in texture or color, the wire side being more conspicuous than normal. Or the ‘color being of lighter shade upon the wire side.

A term applied to paper or pulp which has not been treated with bleaching agents.

A term applied to many properties of paper, such as formation, basis weight, caliper, color, finish, etc.

A term applied to papers to which no sizing has been added. (see also sizing.)

Vapor Permeability
That property of a sheet which allows the passage of a vapor. Measured under very carefully specified conditions of total pressure, partial pressures of the vapor on the two sides of the sheet, temperature and relative humidity. Not to be confused with porosity (air permeability).

Water Creping
Performed as a converting operation, the paper being moistened and passed over a roll equipped with a doctor. The process is capable of producing up to 500% crepe. (see also crepe paper.)

Water finish
A high, glossy finish produced by moistening one or both sides of the paper as it passes through the calender stack. (see also steam finish.)

A relative term applied to papers which have been heavily treated or laminated to resist moisture. (see also moisture resistance.)

Water Resistance
See moisture resistance.

Waxed Kraft
A sulphate paper which has been coated with wax on one or both sides.

Wet End
That portion of a paper machine between the head box and the dryer section. (see also fourdrinier.)

Wet-Strength Paper
A paper which has extraordinary resistance to rupture or disintegration when saturated with water. Achieved by chemical treatment of the fibers in the beater or the sheet at the size press. A paper which retains more than 15% of its dry strength when thoroughly wetted may properly be called a wet-strength paper.

Wet Wax
A process where wax is applied in such a way that wax is present on the surface of the sheet covering the paper fibers.

Wire Side
That side of a sheet of paper which was originally in contact with the machine wire or fourdrinier.

Wood Cellulose
That material remaining after the nonfibrous component:; of wood have been removed by the pulping operation. Used for making paper.

Creases in paper caused during manufacturing.

ZZZip-Strip™ Bags
Twin perforations down the bag face allows top to be peeled back for clean, easy access to food.